Response to Bed bugs in offices

Places of business are generally not ideal for bed bug infestations to become established because there is little opportunity for the bugs to feed on sleeping or stationary persons.

While reproducing populations of bed bugs may not develop in such places, they may serve as hubs for the accidental transport of bed bugs by workers to their homes and to places they frequent during the day such as restaurants and other businesses.


  • Workers should report potential bed bug sightings; and if possible, collect specimens.
  • Collected specimens should be identified by a qualified pest management professional.
  • When bed bugs have been identified in the building, workers should be notified and informed about how to prevent transporting bed bugs.
  • Workers should not bring or use pesticides at work.
  • A pest management professional should be contacted as soon as possible to inspect areas where bed bugs have been confirmed and render treatment as necessary.
  • Follow-up inspections and treatments should be made until there are no confirmed bed bug sightings for at least two months.
  • Office workers should minimize the number of items brought into and out of the building. If items such as coats, purses, backpacks and brief cases are brought in and out, they should be
    stored off the floor and in tightly sealed bags or plastic bins when not in use.
  • As much as is practical, office clutter should be eliminated. Bed bugs may be prevented from crawling onto desks and desk chairs by installing traps beneath desk and chair legs, or by wrapping carpet tape or duct tape (sticky side out) around the legs.
  • Items brought back-and-forth from office and home should be placed and stored in tight-sealing bags or plastic containers in
    cars and at home.
  • When leaving infested offices, workers should do self inspections for bed bugs.
  • Upon arrival home, clothes can be immediately washed and dried in a hot dryer for at least 20 minutes to eliminate all stages of
    bed bugs.

Heat Treatment for Bed bugs

Why Heat?

  1. Heat treatment can be used to treat and control bed bugs in:
  • A whole structure.
  • An apartment unit, a room, or a portion of a room.
  • A compartment containing furniture and possessions.
  1. Heat treatments typically provide more flexibility for use in cluttered environments than traditional pesticide applications.
  2. Research and understand applicable fire codes, and local ordinances regarding the use of portable heaters, fire suppression systems and other heat treatment related concerns.
  3. Only equipment designed and tested for use as an insect control device should be used for whole room bed bug treatments.
  4. Heat equipment should be carefully inspected before use to ensure that it is in proper working order and no foreseeable fire hazards exist.

Thermal–Heat Treatment Methods

Heat kills bed bugs at a core temperature of 120º for 20 minutes!

Types of heat treatments are:

  • Structure Heat Treatment
  • Localized Heat Treatment
  • Steam heat Treatment
  • Containerized or Truck Heat Treatment

Post-Treatment Evaluation

Success in bed bug service is generally declared when no new evidence of bed bugs can be found and verified.

Because of the cryptic nature of bed bugs, it is difficult to be 100% sure that all bed bugs and eggs have been eliminated.

Tech should base their schedule of follow-up inspections on the treatment process they use. Follow-up services may include:

  1. Interviewing occupants and staff to see if there has been any recent activity (bites, new bed bug fecal stains on sheets, visual sightings, etc.).
  2. Inspection of treated rooms and adjacent areas


When temperatures drop, many of the bugs that bite or sting us like fleas go into a sort of hibernation mode. So, it makes sense to ask whether or not bed bugs do the same. But the way bugs hibernate isn’t the same as the way many animals hibernate. Bugs go into a low-energy state called diapause, just like it sounds, it’s a state of  pause in their development.

Bed bugs live almost exclusively inside where temperatures are controlled. If the temperatures in a home feel like spring or summer, bed bugs will have no problem being active. Not only are bed bugs active during the winter months, they spread during the winter months. If you just went somewhere for the holidays, it is possible that you brought bed bugs home with you. Bed bugs spread more when we travel more. And, if you have college-age children, it is possible they could have brought them home during the holidays.

If bed bugs are exposed to temperatures at or below 0℉ for a period of approximately four days, they will die. According to an article from the  Yale School of Public Health, the female bed bugs are even harder than the rest. Female bed bugs have a super cooling point, the temperature at which the bug will freeze, of around -20℃ or -4℉. Though bed bugs can survive at low temperatures, the article also states that development may be halted at temperatures below 50℉, meaning bed bugs may remain as a nymph until the environment is warmer.

Home freezers often do not reach temperatures severe enough to kill bed bugs quickly, so freezing time will probably need to be extended. Additionally, internal temperatures of these freezers may fluctuate, especially with frequent opening and closing. Deep-freezing at temperatures below -30℃ or -22℉ for three to four days is most effective in killing bed bugs.

Even if bed bugs do survive cold temperatures, studies have found egg production and hatching success to be reduced. That being the case, cold temperatures are not completely useless when it comes to eradicating a bed bug population.


Bed Bug Prevention in Apartment buildings

Early detection and prompt, effective action is critical to prevent bed bugs from becoming established in an apartment building or buildings. Once established, bed bugs are among the most difficult and expensive pests to control. Success demands aggressive action and perseverance in tracking down and eliminating every last bug.

 Residents can help prevent bed bugs by:

  • Not using mattresses, beds, or other furniture that has been discarded, and by carefully inspecting used or reconditioned furniture.
  • Reducing clutter, which provides hiding places for bed bugs making treatment difficult or impossible.
  • Vacuuming and laundering bed linens and clothing on a regular schedule.
  • Isolating their beds by installing encasement on mattresses and box springs, pulling their beds away from walls, and raising bed skirts so they do not touch the floor.

Management can help prevent bed bugs by:

  • Training all residents on bed bugs including what they look like, what their bites look like, importance of prompt reports to management if bed bugs are suspected, and ways to minimize the likelihood of bringing bed bugs into the building.
  • Reducing bed bug hiding places by sealing cracks along baseboards and moldings, around pipe chases, in floors, etc., and by removing or re-gluing peeling wallpaper, removing peeling paint, and fixing damage.
  • Bagging and discarding belongings left behind by vacating tenants.
  • Destroying or damaging infested beds and furniture that residents are discarding so that they cannot be reused by another resident.
  • Scheduling regular inspections of apartments to detect bed bug infestations.





Bed bug inspections

Bed bug inspections will vary in complexity depending on: The site (private home, apartment unit, hotel, office, etc.)

The purpose of the inspection:

  • Confirming an infestation Identifying all infested areas to determine treatment tactics
  • Verifying that an infestation has been eliminated
  • The extent of the infestation (low-level infestations are typically more difficult and time consuming to inspect than are widespread, heavy infestations).

An initial bed bug inspection should include at a minimum:

  • Carefully inspecting sheets, pillowcases, and other bed linens, mattresses, box springs, bed frames and headboards by checking all seams, piping, straps, and other hiding places for live bed bugs, cast skins, fecal staining, and eggs.
  • Looking for evidence of bed bugs in cracks, crevices, and other typical bed bug hiding places near the beds, and areas where people have reported seeing bed bugs or being bitten.
  • In addition, inspections may include, depending on the site, and if necessary.

Such things as:

  • Inspecting inside and underneath furniture, including the removal of drawers from dressers and other items.
  • Inspecting behind pictures, wall hangings, and drapes.
  • Lifting the edge of carpeting and inspecting behind baseboards in suspected areas.
  • Inspecting for bed bugs on, under, and inside upholstered furniture.
  • Further investigation of any site where bed bug fecal material is observed.

Inspection outside the Bedroom:

  • Bed bug inspection should include areas outside of bedrooms where people spend time resting.
  • In commercial settings, depending on the extent of the infestation,
  • inspections may be expanded to other areas which may include:
  • Laundry carts, laundry rooms, janitorial closets, and storage areas.
  • Common areas such as recreation rooms, break rooms, social centers, lounges, and waiting rooms where people congregate.
  • Obtain authorization to inspect rooms or apartment units next door, above, and below, the infested room(s).

In residential settings:

  • Inspect hallways, closets, storage boxes, pet beds/cages, desks, and other areas that may harbor bed bugs.
  • Inspect the living room, family room, and other non-sleeping areas.

The goals of a comprehensive bed bug inspection should be:

  • To determine if treatment is necessary.
  • To identify special considerations such as the presence of ill residents, pets, or young children.
  • To determine the best methods of control and estimate the amount of labor that will be needed.

Top 5 Bed bug Myths

Myth 1: You can’t see a bed bug.
Reality: You should be able to see adult bed bugs, nymphs and eggs with your naked eye.

Myth 2: Bed bugs live in dirty places.
Reality: Bed bugs are not attracted to dirt and grime; they are attracted to warmth, blood and carbon dioxide. However, clutter offers more hiding spots.

Myth 3: Bed bugs transmit diseases.
Reality: There are no cases that indicate bed bugs pass diseases from one host to another. Lab tests have shown that it is unlikely that the insect is capable of infecting its host.

Myth 4: Bed bugs won’t come out if the room is brightly lit.
Reality: While bed bugs prefer darkness, keeping the light on at night won’t deter these pests from biting you.

Myth 5: Pesticide applications alone will easily eliminate bed bug infestations.
Reality: Bed bug control can only be maintained through a comprehensive treatment strategy that incorporates a variety of techniques and vigilant monitoring. Proper use of pesticides may be one component of the strategy, but will not eliminate bed bugs alone. In addition, bed bugs populations in different geographic areas of the country have developed resistance to many insecticides. If you’re dealing with a resistant population, some products and application methods may only serve to make the problem worse. It is a good idea to consult a qualified pest management professional if you have bed bugs in your home.


Bed Bugs FAQs


What are bed bugs? 

Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are small, flat, parasitic insects that feed solely on the blood of people and animals while they sleep. Bed bugs are reddish-brown in color, wingless, range from 1mm to 7mm (roughly the size of Lincoln’s head on a penny), and can live several months without a blood meal.

Where are bed bugs found? 

Bed bugs are found across the globe from North and South America, to Africa, Asia and Europe. Although the presence of bed bugs has traditionally been seen as a problem in developing countries, it has recently been spreading rapidly in parts of the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and other parts of Europe. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined by the cleanliness of the living conditions where they are found.

Bed bug infestations usually occur around or near the areas where people sleep. These areas include apartments, shelters, rooming houses, hotels, cruise ships, buses, trains, and dorm rooms. They hide during the day in places such as seams of mattresses, box springs, bed frames, headboards, dresser tables, inside cracks or crevices, behind wallpaper, or any other clutter or objects around a bed. Bed bugs have been shown to be able to travel over 100 feet in a night but tend to live within 8 feet of where people sleep.

Do bed bugs spread disease? 

Bed bugs are not known to spread disease. Bed bugs can be an annoyance because their presence may cause itching and loss of sleep. Sometimes the itching can lead to excessive scratching that can sometimes increase the chance of a secondary skin infection.

What health risks do bed bugs pose? 

A bed bug bite affects each person differently. Bite responses can range from an absence of any physical signs of the bite, to a small bite mark, to a serious allergic reaction. Bed bugs are not considered to be dangerous; however, an allergic reaction to several bites may need medical attention.

What are the signs and symptoms of a bed bug infestation? 

One of the easiest ways to identify a bed bug infestation is by the tell-tale bite marks on the face, neck, arms, hands, or any other body parts while sleeping. However, these bite marks may take as long as 14 days to develop in some people so it is important to look for other clues when determining if bed bugs have infested an area. These signs include:

  • the bed bugs’ exoskeletons after molting,
  • bed bugs in the fold of mattresses and sheets,rusty–colored blood spots due to their blood-filled fecal material that they excrete on the mattress or nearby furniture, and
  • a sweet musty odor.

How do I know if I’ve been bitten by a bed bug? 

It is hard to tell if you’ve been bitten by a bed bug unless you find bed bugs or signs of infestation. When bed bugs bite, they inject an anesthetic and an anticoagulant that prevents a person from realizing they are being bitten. Most people do not realize they have been bitten until bite marks appear anywhere from one to several days after the initial bite. The bite marks are similar to that of a mosquito or a flea — a slightly swollen and red area that may itch and be irritating. The bite marks may be random or appear in a straight line. Other symptoms of bed bug bites include insomnia, anxiety, and skin problems that arise from profuse scratching of the bites.

Because bed bug bites affect everyone differently, some people may have no reaction and will not develop bite marks or any other visible signs of being bitten. Other people may be allergic to the bed bugs and can react adversely to the bites. These allergic symptoms can include enlarged bite marks, painful swellings at the bite site, and, on rare occasions, anaphylaxis.

How did I get bed bugs? 

Bed bugs are experts at hiding. Their slim flat bodies allow them to fit into the smallest of spaces and stay there for long periods of time, even without a blood meal. Bed bugs are usually transported from place to place as people travel. The bed bugs travel in the seams and folds of luggage, overnight bags, folded clothes, bedding, furniture, and anywhere else where they can hide. Most people do not realize they are transporting stow-away bed bugs as they travel from location to location, infecting areas as they travel.

Who is at risk for getting bed bugs? 

Everyone is at risk for getting bed bugs when visiting an infected area. However, anyone who travels frequently and shares living and sleeping quarters where other people have previously slept has a higher risk of being bitten and or spreading a bed bug infestation.

How are bed bugs treated and prevented? 

Bed bug bites usually do not pose a serious medical threat. The best way to treat a bite is to avoid scratching the area and apply antiseptic creams or lotions and take an antihistamine. Bed bug infestations are commonly treated by insecticide spraying. If you suspect that you have an infestation, contact your landlord or professional pest control company that is experienced with treating bed bugs. The best way to prevent bed bugs is regular inspection for the signs of an infestation.


Bed bugs – Disposing of Furniture and Possessions

Disposal of beds, furniture, clothing, and other items because they are infested with bed bugs should generally be discouraged in residential situations and should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  • Disposal of infested items does not guarantee bed bug control.
  • Disposal of these items can result in a serious financial burden for residents, particularly in lower income areas.
  • Replacement items may become infested if brought into a room prior to treatment of the infestation.
  • Disposal may result in spread of bed bugs to new locations.

Mattress, box spring, and furniture encasement can be a cost-effective alternative to disposal.

Some customers will prefer to dispose of infested items even after assurance that they can be successfully treated. Hotels and other sensitive sites may prefer to dispose of all bed bug infested furniture to avoid negative public relations.

When disposal of infested materials is necessary, steps should be taken to minimize the likelihood of spreading bed bugs in accordance with applicable laws or ordinances for discarding bed bug infested items.

Items that are badly damaged and deteriorated may not justify the effort and expense to treat them and should be discarded.

  1. Visible or readily accessible bed bugs should be eliminated by vacuuming, steaming, freezing, insecticide treatment or other methods.
  2. Prior to removal from the infested area, mattresses, box springs, and furniture should be sealed in plastic to trap bed bugs inside.
  3. If left for pick-up, furniture should be labeled as bed bug infested, and then damaged to render it unsalvageable.
  4. Disposal should be coordinated with trash pick-up, or items should be taken directly to a disposal site.

Bugs that resemble the human bed bug

Bed bugs are reddish-brown, small–about ¼” long-wingless and very flat. They prefer to feed on human blood, although they may bite other warm-blooded animals, including pets. During the day, bedbugs hide near the bed. They use heat-seeking thermo receptors to find their sleeping victims at night.

Life Stages: Eggs hatch into nymphs, newly hatched nymphs are tiny-about 1/16” of an inch. Nymphs go through 5 molts to reach adult size and they must feed before each molt. Females can produce 5-7 eggs per week, laying up to 500 in a lifetime. Bed bugs grow fastest and lay most eggs between 72°- 80°F. They feed only on blood when people are sleeping or sitting quietly, often when it’s dark.

They seek shelter in cracks and crevices when not feeding. They poop out “blood spots.” Spots look like dots made by a fine felt-tipped marker. You’d see them near where they fed and near their hideouts. Adults can live over a year without a meal. Can be found in the cleanest of clean places. But clutter makes them harder to get rid of. They have no “grooming behavior”- meaning that insecticides meant to be swallowed by roaches and flies won’t work on bed bugs.

Bat bugs: The differences between these two pests are subtle and more often than not, only a trained professional would be able to tell the difference. Bat bugs and bed bugs look almost identical in body shape and color. The most useful identifying feature is their hair; a bat bug has longer hairs on their upper thorax than those of a bed bug. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to see this difference without the use of a microscope.  

As for behavior, both are blood-sucking parasites that feed on warm-blooded mammals. Although both feed exclusively on blood, their preferred host varies. Bed bugs prefer feeding on humans, while bat bugs prefer bats, as their name suggests. Bat blood is essential to the survival and reproduction of the bat bug, however, they have been known to feed on other mammals, including humans when abandoned by their bat hosts.

Bat bugs are often found inside a structure when bats have established a colony in attics, wall voids, unused chimneys, or any uninhabited areas within a building. Typically, bat bugs will be found in cracks and crevices in bat roosting areas.

Swallow bugs are found commonly in barn and cliff swallow nests, but readily invade the structures and bite humans as well. They are not incriminated as vectors of any diseases to humans, but their bite is known to cause minor to serious reactions on humans. The swallow bug is distinguished from other, similar species by its antennae, where the last two segments are the same length. This species also tends to be a grayish brown color, rather than the reddish brown of the Human Bed Bug.

Poultry bed bug: In a breeder facility, hens and roosters, typically in high numbers, are used to provide hatching eggs for broiler production. Several regions of the broiler breeder facility may serve as shelter and hiding places for bed bugs. Typically, feeders and waterers are hung over platforms made of wooden slats that provide excellent shelter for bed bugs. Also, the corners of galvanized metal nest boxes and cardboard boxes used to transport eggs are typical sites for bed bugs. Because of the high density of animals and the resulting stress, heavy infestations of bed bugs in chicken houses may lead to excessive feather loss, cloacal irritation, lesions on the breast and legs, and even anemia in extreme cases. Consequently, production may be decreased, feed consumption may increase, and egg spots from bed bug fecal deposits may be observed, potentially diminishing the value of the eggs as well as the profitability of the chickens.

NOTE: The eggs and meat are not harmed directly by bed bugs. However, there can be indirect harm such as anemia from blood loss. Bed bugs are not like ticks that remain attached to animals. They just feed for a few minutes and then run away, so the chickens themselves when sent to market should not have any bed bugs on or in them.

Psocids (Book Lice) are tiny little bugs – about 1/16 ” long and they are not actually lice at all and are harmless. But, they are still bugs and must be dealt with accordingly!

If you’ve got any dried out or decaying plants, you might find these little critters enjoying a plant buffet, or they may even be lurking around your stored food.

For identification purposes, the head and abdomen of a book louse appear large, and the midsection is narrower. Huge, compound eyes protrude from the sides of the head. They also have thread-like antennae that sweep back toward the abdomen. Not all book lice have wings, but some do (usually the book lice that stay outside), and when they do, there are four of them – two smaller front wings and two larger back wings. Most of the ones you will be hunting indoors should be wingless book lice.